Sunday, May 24, 2020

The World s Overpopulation Problem Essay - 1068 Words

Have you ever wondered what earth would be like in the near future with over 10 billion people from 7 billion? A newspaper source from Population Peril states that there are 210,000 new people everyday and by 2050 that there will be roughly 9.6 billion people (McClatchy). How are we going to prevent the disastrous measure of pollution, diseases, extinction of resources, more poverty, people and etc.? As the world’s overpopulation problem should be changed to prevent future severe issues. First off, the proponent states that the one future major problem that will ineffably get worse is epidemic or outbreaks of disease and viruses. The more people on earth the higher chance diseases will evolve and travel faster. â€Å"As Keiji Fukuda, then the assistant director general for health security at the World Health Organization (WHO), said in 2013, The world is not ready for a large, severe outbreak. (Angell). Some new and old epidemic diseases that will get worse with more people i s Zika (mosquito), Cholera (sewage), Ebola, SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), and MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome). Another virus is the bird flu that is even a further severe disease problem as well as anything airborne. â€Å"The New York Times, Michael T. Osterholm, the director of the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy at the University of Minnesota, wrote, Even more than these viruses, we should be afraid of a planet-wide catastrophe caused by influenza. (Angell). InfluenzaShow MoreRelatedChina And Indi Driving Forces Of Overpopulation712 Words   |  3 PagesEmre Can AydÄ ±n Writing Assignment 104A 03/15/2015 China and India: Driving Forces of Overpopulation According to BBC, India s population reached nearly 1.21bn (India census: population goes up to 1.21bn). China is also has the population of 1.36bn according to Chinese Government (China Statistical Yearbook-2014). That s almost the half of the Earth s population. There are negative outcomes of this situation like poverty, depletion of resources and disturbed cultural structures. ActuallyRead MoreOverpopulation : Preserve The World1291 Words   |  6 Pages Overpopulation: Preserve The World If there was a way to have a better life for you and your loved ones would you take it? Or would you rather not take the opportunity and struggle throughout the rest of your life, this will happen by world overpopulation. In the past, Overpopulation started out from the baby boom which increased the birthrate, and according to Ewan Mcleish the author of â€Å"Overcrowded World, (16)† he stated that it made 40% of the national population. Today, overpopulation is aRead MoreOverpopulation1587 Words   |  7 Pagesthe human race, while others think it is beneficial to continue on this path. The ongoing debate on world overpopulation allows many different people to offer their unique opinions, such as Erle C. Ellis, Joel Kotkin, Robert Walker, and Alon Tal. These writers offer perspectives that support and conflict the different aspects of the overpopulation issue. Both Ellis and Kotkin believe that overpopulation is not an issue, while Walker and Tal strongly believe that it is. Ellis believes that humans canRead MoreOverpopulation Is Still The Problem1201 Words   |  5 PagesIn the article Overpopulation Is Still the Problem, Alon Tal (2013) claims that overpopulation remains the number one problem facing the world today and discusses various problems and possible solutions. Tal unveils the falsely assuring news stories refuting overpopulation as a problem. He particularly dissects Ellis Erle’s assertions, in the New York Times, concerning China’s seemingly magical works of technology. Erle comes to the conclusion that China’s amazing technology has and will always beRead MoreOverpopulation : We Must Figure It Out For Save The World Essay1645 Words   |  7 Pages Overpopulation: We Must Figure It Out to Save the World It may not be something you think about often, but human population growth is a big issue in our world today and this problem needs to be solved in the future to save our planet. Overpopulation is a condition that will be in effect if the population exceeds the carrying capacity on Earth. The carrying capacity is the peak population that can sustain human life on Earth. It is uncertain what Earth’s carrying capacity is for the human raceRead MoreThe Biggest Crisis We Face Today : Human Overpopulation1218 Words   |  5 PagesHuman Overpopulation There are many causes for overpopulation than just increasing numbers of people. Modern technology, improved medicine, more opportunities to get out of poverty, low fatality rates, immigration, and the lack of family planning (Rinkesh); all lead to overpopulation. Earth is home to 7.2 billion people. A research of 2015 (infoplease) shows that most of the world s population lies with the two largest countries in Asia: China and India. As of the last study of the world s populationRead MoreThe Effects Of Human Overpopulation On The Environment1242 Words   |  5 PagesThe Effects of Human Overpopulation on the Environment â€Å"Can one apple slice feed the world?† If the world were an apple, farmland would only be one very thin slice. The growing population on this Earth has some serious questions that it needs to consider as a whole. How are we all going to eat with eight billion mouths to eat? Farmers have an interesting proposition, they need to feed a growing population with very little land. Overpopulation also has negative effects on the earth through pollutionRead MoreEssay On Overpopulation1030 Words   |  5 PagesHuman overpopulation occurs when the ecological footprint of a human population in a specific location exceeds the carrying capacity of the place occupied by that group. Overpopulation can further be viewed, in a long term perspective, as existing when a population cannot be maintained given the rapid depletion of nonrenewable resources or given the degradation of the of the environment to give support to the population. Overpopulation is a problem that needs to be solved. Concern about overpopulationRead MoreOverpopulation And The Problem Of Overpopulation1388 Words   |  6 PagesTo begin with, in demography, the term overpopulation refers to a condition wherein the total population of a particular region far exceeds the carrying capacity of the region. Although the term by and large refers to the ratio between population and the available area, the ratio between the population and available resources cannot be ignored. First, the rate at which the population is growing; the data compiled by the United Nations shows that the world population grew by 30 percent between 1990Read MoreA Great Matter Of Concern Today Or Just A Bust?1667 Words   |  7 PagesWednesday, October 29, 2014 â€Æ' A Great Matter of Concern Today or Just a Bust? While India is on the verge of being the most populated country. While the third world countries are deprived of their resources rapidly. People in the United States have to say that the problem of over population has been curbed and infant production rate controlled. Recently, one of the commentators in prominent U.S. publication declared that the population boom is a bust. Whether it

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Potential Misuse Of A Computer - 780 Words

This report includes a review of potential misuse of a computer. On May 30, 2016, Joe Ballard, the HR Director, contacted the Information Technology (IT) Department to have one of the forensic investigators to complete an investigation into potential misuse of company computer systems. Kurt Clark, a digital forensic investigator, was assigned to the case. The investigator met with Mr. Ballard on May 30, 2016 to discuss the case. It was explained how Tim Norman was suspected of stealing other employee’s identities and running a side business during work hours. Tim Norman’s manager provided information concerning access to the computer system. The virtual machine was examined and one file containing Malware was found, but no Malware was identified on the virtual machine. In addition, two files were located which pertained to the misuse of company computers. One file had what appears to be credit card numbers and the other file has what appears to be social security numbers in it. Misuse of Company Computers Investigation #456 II. Detailed Analysis On May 30, 2016, Joe Ballard, the HR Director, contacted the Information Technology (IT) Department to have one of the forensic investigators to complete an investigation into potential misuse of company computer systems. The investigator met with Mr. Ballard and was told the employee, Tim Norman, was suspected of stealing other employee’s identities and running a side business during work hours. On May 31, 2016, theShow MoreRelatedWhy Companies Have A Right For Monitor Employees Use Of The Internet While On Company Time1744 Words   |  7 Pagesabout decreased productivity while employees are using the Internet for personal use on company time. Other employers monitor employee Internet use to protect them from increased costs associated with bandwidth and others are concerned with the potential legal problems that could arise. These are just a few reasons why monitoring electronic usage in the workplace has become a responsible business practice. Malware protection is something that businesses and organizations take seriously. VirusesRead MoreHow Technology Can Do For Us? Essay976 Words   |  4 Pageswith a misuse of the technology not only for the employees but anyone that seek to work there. How a prospect employee to a company of business can sabotage his or her job interview through technology? Technology creation The technology has been created by people that dream to facilitate, improve and make life easy. In old time television, science fiction programs like â€Å"Lost in Space† picture a large computer covering almost a wall. Others TV shows, like â€Å"I Dream of Jeannie† even has a computer namedRead MoreSecurity Policies : Security Planning Essay911 Words   |  4 PagesThe very important factor of network deployment is security planning. Without doing a full risk assessment, it is not possible to plan for security. This security planning involves developing security policies and implementing controls to prevent computer risks from becoming reality. Each and every organization is different and will need to plan and create policies based upon its individual security goals and needs. The risk assessment provides a baseline for implementing securityRead MoreEssay on Managing the Workplace Ethics of Social Media1474 Words   |  6 Pageslooking at their employees and their companies in general. There are so many benefits that social media has brought to the cooperate world, but with this each company is becoming increasingly more aware of the risks that are involved with using it. Misuse of company resources, conflicts of interest, and criticism of others are just a few.   This is a challenging topic, because there is so much corss-over on many ethical and compliance issues. Like any other ethics and compliance topic, social mediaRead MoreThe Impact Of Technology On The Business World1233 Words   |  5 Pagesfor businesses and the decision they make. Technology can be both a tool and a distraction for employees. It is becoming increasingly easy to get off task during work because of the distractions of computers and the internet. In fact, one in three employees waste over two hours online per week. The misuse of technology during work hours is a waste of time for the employee and a risk for the company. The threat of external issues can be prevented through internal monitoring. Therefore, software suchRead MoreThe Internet Usage At Workplace1320 Words   |  6 PagesINTRODUCTION Prior to the Internet, employees would have limited activities they could perform when using the computer at work, however with the advance of technology the computer and the Internet enabled a wide range of tools employees can work with. These technological developments have a huge impact, both positive and negative, and are also affecting the way Internet is being used in the workplace. On the positive side, the Internet improved the way employers and employees communicate in the workplaceRead MoreHow Technology Has Changed The Way Users Work1250 Words   |  5 PagesABSTRACT Computing technology has changed the way users work, learn and play-More businesses have gone online. They have turned into a vital piece of our regular presence. These computer system are vulnerable against various internal/external threats like malware in both homes business and environments and this has rapidly escalated firmly over the past several years. Information in this systems needs to be protected from intruders because it’s an essential asset in the organisation. Three basicRead MoreComputer-Assisted Testing Essay example559 Words   |  3 Pages There are numerous benefits of computer-assisted testing. They can enhance test administration, scoring, interpretation, and integration. Test administration and scoring may be enhanced due to the standardization that is built in to computers. Another benefit is that each test taker receives the same presentation of test items and response sets. The availability of computerized testing devices allows people with a disabil ities to complete tests with minimal assistance. This allows the test resultsRead MoreThe Types Of Security Incidents Essay1675 Words   |  7 Pagesvendors are required to report all incidents – including potential or suspected incidents, as soon as possible via Blyth’s Books Incident Reporting procedures. The types of Incidents, which this policy addresses, include but are not limited to: †¢ Computers left unlocked when unattended o Users of Blyth’s Books computer systems are continually reminded of the importance of locking their computers when not in use or when leaving computers unattended for any length of time. All Blyth’s Books employeesRead MoreRemote Access Policy Is A Normal Thing795 Words   |  4 Pagesunauthorized access, leakage of confidential information. So to minimize these potential risks a secure policy is required. Remote access policy tries to minimize the risks associated with remote networks by defining the system requirement for remote users before they are allowed to connect to the organization’s network. Remote access policy defines standards for connecting to organizational network and security standards for computers that are allowed to connect to organizational network. 2. Purpose The

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Scarlet Letter Free Essays

Amy Sheehan Mr. Frye English 11 Honors 3 February 2012 Clever Title The physical and emotional strain resulting from sex out of wedlock seems to be an almost unbearable burden. In Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter, Hester Prynne, and her daughter Pearl deal with the emotional abuse from her townspeople because of an affair with Dimmesdale. We will write a custom essay sample on Scarlet Letter or any similar topic only for you Order Now All of the harassment takes place in a small town in Boston, Massachusetts. In Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter, the reoccurring image of a circle/sphere probes the thought that humanity is following a cycle of cruelty that has never been broken. The use of actual objects to distinguish the pattern of isolation reoccurs often. Isolation plays a key factor in The Scarlet Letter, usually being hinted at with assistance from the image of a circle or sphere. In some instances, the cycle of isolation appears in nature: â€Å"Did the sun, which shone so brightly everywhere else, really fall upon him? Or, was there, as it rather seemed, a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity, whichever way he turned himself. † (172). The sunlight refuses to fall directly on Chillingworth because of his impure body structure. The shadow casting off of him foreshadows the death he will later face. Nature isolates Chillingworth because he seems to be dark creature. Hawthorne does not just use circles and spheres in nature, he also uses them through Hester’s other possessions. Pear also plays a part in the reoccurring isolation symbol. â€Å"But she names the infant ‘Pearl† (85). In the beginning, Hester was isolated because of her sin. As the book goes on, she realizes that society continues to exclude not only her, but her daughter as well. A pearl represents a small spherical object grown in the comfort of an oyster’s mouth. In essence that is exactly what Pearl is. The only life she has known is one of complete distance from the rest of society. If someone shows her kindness, or acceptance, she would not know how to react. She’s been raised to think isolation is normal. Her mother on the other hand will never quite get used to the harsh reality of what she’s done; â€Å"While Hester stood in that magic circle of ignominy where the cunning cruelty of her sentence seem to have fixed her forever† (242). The amazing ability of the townspeople to shun a completely innocent woman is the pattern of humanity. Mankind has always been unbelievably cruel to the people who least deserve it. Hester’s humility and strength is show constantly throughout the book. The invariable essence of cruelty is, and always has been, a big part of society. Not only are objects used to portray isolation, people are also used. With every mention of a circle/sphere, the patterns of isolation continue to show up. â€Å"They now felt themselves, at least, inhabitants of the same sphere† (186). Hawthorne uses the relationship between Hester and Dimmesdale to prove the point of the cruel unfair ways of humanity. The well liked man gets away with absolutely no judgment, while the lower class woman gets all the hatred and punishment. While these two people are so diversely seen in society, they formed a completely flawless creation that gets torn apart by the isolation of the town; â€Å"Pearl looked as beautiful as the day, but was in one of those moods of perverse merriment which, whenever they occurred, seemed to remove her entirely out of the sphere of sympathy or human contact† (130). Pearl has entered her own circle of dependency. She depends on her mom and herself. Society has shut her out completely, just because she’s associated with Hester. Which makes one think; how would this child be looked at if she were to be associated with her father, Dimmesdale. With Pearl having a father as a saint, and a mother as a sinner, gave Pearl a very narrow chance of ridding this pattern of isolation. Although society didn’t bear down on Dimmesdale, his guilty conscience is what got to him. â€Å"The very contiguity of his enemy, beneath whatever mask the latter might conceal himself, was enough to disturb the magnetic sphere of a being so sensitive as Arthur Dimmesdale† (189). The cruel patterns of humanity don’t always come from other people. Ones worst enemy is one’s self. His cruel ways of emotionally and physically tormenting himself were just another isolation tactic. He isolated himself from everyone emotionally because he felt as if the secret was bearing down on his soul. No matter whom you are, or how ‘godly’ you are, you will always fall a victim to the cruel ways of humanity. The main person being singled out by the people is Hester Prynne. Her ability to bounce back and still have a love for the people who have been ridiculing her for 7 years is unbelievable. Although her humility is great, the cycle of isolation will not be broken; â€Å"As was usually the case wherever Hester stood, a small vacant area- a sort of magic circle- had formed itself about her† (230) Her reputation alone gives her this kind of innate ability to after awhile isolate herself. In some parts of the book Hester even tries to isolate herself, from herself; â€Å"She had flirted fancifully with her own image in a pool of water, beckoning the phantom forth, and –as it declined to venture- seeking a passage for herself into its sphere of impalpable earth and unattainable sky† (173). The only thing keeping her back from complete and total freedom is her mindset. Her mind is so isolated from most other people that it would just be hard for her to even think about being part of a crowd again. The only thing keeping her somewhat part of a society greater than herself is her daughter. â€Å"The light lingered about the lonely child, as if glad of such a playmate, until her mother had drawn almost high enough to step into the magic circle too† (180). These two are isolated together. They depend on each other yet lead completely different lives. Society bonded them together in isolation, yet in their own little circles, they isolate themselves from each other. The cycle of isolation with humanity has never before been broken. Although it may appear to be an easy pattern to break, there is always someone or some kind of possession that will be thrown to the side and isolated from the rest of society. The patterns occur in this book through objects, people, and Hester. Don’t underestimate the power of isolation, it can make you do things you would never dream of doing. Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter. New York, NY: Tom Doherty Associates, 1989. Print How to cite Scarlet Letter, Papers Scarlet Letter Free Essays In Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter the story takes place in Puritanical America where the young Hester Prynne, after committing adultery is punished on the basis of what the town thinks is right. She is simultaneously a part of the town and is also pushed away from it. Hawthorne explores the theme of liminality between society and nature through the motif of setting to convey the isolation that comes with sin. We will write a custom essay sample on Scarlet Letter or any similar topic only for you Order Now The scaffold (where Hester stands to face her consequences), Hester and Pearl’s cottage, and the brook are all examples of setting that all contain elements of liminality in â€Å"The Scarlet Letter†. Hester stands on the scaffold during the day to fulfill the consequences of her sin. She brings Pearl with her as she is the product of the sin. While the town has knowledge of what she has done they are still unaware of who took part in this crime with her. â€Å"They stood in the noon of that strange and solemn splendor, as if it were the light that is to reveal all secrets and the daybreak that shall unite all who belong to one another. † (135). â€Å"They† is referring to Hester, Pearl, and Dimmesdale; the town’s minister who, the reader now knows, fathered young Pearl. The light and dark imagery indicates the liminal state between the three of them and the rest of the town, â€Å"The light that is to reveal all secrets. † The scaffold also shows a liminal state between Hester and Dimmesdale, â€Å"†¦ and little Pearl, herself a symbol, and the connecting link between those two. † (135) When the three of them are on the scaffold together it shows the unity between them, but also a side that shows they are not fully united with one another. â€Å"All the dread of public exposure, that had so long been the anguish of his life, had returned upon him. (134). The passage â€Å"dread of public exposure† represents the guilt and fear Dimmesdale has about revealing the secret in his sin. This is what shows the liminal state between Hester and Dimmesdale; they sinned together, however only one of them will publically take responsibility for this action. This indicates that while there is a clear connection between the two of them ( Pearl) the â€Å"dread of public exposure† creates a distance between them. Hester and Pearl are also, as another consequence, forced to live in a ottage on the edge of the town, isolated from the rest of society. This plays as a symbolic representation of liminality because the two of them are stuck in the area between lawful society and lawless nature. â€Å"It straggled onward into the mystery of the primeval forest. This hemmed it in so narrowly, and stood so black and dense on either side, and disclosed such imperfect glimpses of the sky above, that, to Hester’s mind, it imaged not amiss the moral wilderness in which she had so long been wandering. It is said that Hester is recognizing her â€Å"moral wilderness† which further explains how she is not a real part of the Puritanical town but she is â€Å"wandering† within the in-between area of lawful society and lawless nature. Near the end of the story; Hester, Dimmesdale, and Pearl all stand togeth er at the brook. Dimmesdale and Hester have just decided to move to Europe and finally be together where no will know of their previous sinful actions. Pearl stands on one side on the brook by herself, solemnly watching Hester and Dimmesdale who are on the opposite side. This brook is the boundary between two worlds, and that thou canst never meet thy Pearl again† (182). As Hester and Dimmesdale are together there is a clear liminal state between the two of them and Pearl, the words â€Å"boundary between two worlds† indicates the increasing distance created. Hester and Dimmesdale talk about being absolved and rid of the sin â€Å"Be the foregone evil what it might, how could they doubt that their earthly lives and future destinies were conjoined† (180). If Hester and Dimmesdale are rid of their sin, then they will be pushing Pearl away with it, because she is the physical symbol of the sin. In Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter the story takes place in Puritanical America where the young Hester Prynne, after committing adultery is punished on the basis of what the town thinks is right. Hawthorne explores the theme of liminality between society and nature through the motif of setting to convey the isolation that comes with sin. Liminality is shown through settings such as the scaffold, the cottage, and the brook. All places that created a drawing distance between Hester, Pearl, and Dimmesdale. In the end, all of the three are lost in the â€Å"middle area† between lawful society and the lawless world of nature. How to cite Scarlet Letter, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Music History Persuasive Essay Example For Students

Music History Persuasive Essay A concerto (from the Italian: concerto, plural concerti or, often, the anglicizes form concertos) is a musical composition usually composed in three parts or movements, in which (usually) one solo instrument (for instance, a piano, violin, cello or flute) is accompanied by an orchestra or concert band. The etymology is uncertain, but the word seems to have originated from the conjunction of the two Latin words conserver meaning to tie, to Join, to weave) and certain (competition, fight): the idea is that the two parts in a concerto, the soloist and the orchestra or concert band, alternate episodes of opposition, cooperation, and independence in the creation of the music flow. The concerto, as understood in this modern way, arose in the Baroque period side by side with the concerto gross, which contrasted a small group of instruments with the rest of the orchestra. The popularity of the concerto gross form declined after the Baroque period, and the genre was not revived until the 20th century. The solo concerto, however, has remained a vital musical force from its inception to this day. Theres plenty of brightly glittering passageways and rich diapason sound in such movements as the piccalilli-like first of Pop 7 No 1; while the softer side of the instrument is particularly appealing in Pop 4 No 5, where Nicholson, doubtless unconscious that this is a transcription of a recorder sonata, draws from it some very sweet sounds. It has a mechanical action, and here and there the incidental noise may be disconcerting. Still, its authentic, so possibly we should be grateful to have it reproduced. Theres some very lively and at times virtuoso playing from Nicholson in the quick movements, with sturdy rhythms, and some of the dance movements go with a good swing too. Www. Wisped. Com/concerto/harp Music History By gable 1 1

Tuesday, March 31, 2020

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood Chapters 1-4 Vocabulary Essays

Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood Chapters 1-4 Vocabulary Essays Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood Chapters 1-4 Vocabulary Paper Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood Chapters 1-4 Vocabulary Paper adolescence A period of the life course between the timepuberty begins and the time adult status is approached, when young people are in the process of preparing to take on the roles and responsibilities of adulthood in their culture. life-cycle service A period in their late teens and 20s in which young people from the 16th to the 19th century engaged in domestic service, farm service, or apprenticeships in various trades and crafts. child study movement Late 19th century group, led by G. Stanley Hall, that advocated research on child and adolescent development and the improvement of conditions for children and adolescents in the family, school, and workplace. recapitulation Now-discredited theory that held that the development of each individual recapitulates the evolutionary development of the human species as a whole. storm and stress Theory promoted by G. Stanley Hall asserting that adolescence is inevitably a time of mood disruptions, conflict with parents, and antisocial behavior. survey A questionnaire study that involves asking a large number of people questions about their opinions, beliefs, or behavior. stratified sampling Sampling technique in which researchers select participants so that various categories of people are represented in proportions equal to their presence in the population. random sample Sampling technique in which the people selected for participation in a study are chosen randomly, meaning that no one in the population has a better or worse chance of being selected than anyone else. menarche A girls first menstrual period. emerging adulthood Period from roughly ages 18 to 25 in industrialized countries during which young people become more independent from parents and explore various life possibilities before making enduring commitments. Lamarckian Reference to Lamarcks ideas, popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, that evolution takes place as a result of accumulated experience such that organisms pass on their characteristics from one generation to the next in the form of memories and acquired characteristics. early adolescence Period of human development lasting from about age 10 to about age 14. late adolescence Period of human development lasting from about age 15 to about age 18. individualism Cultural belief system that emphasized the desirability of independence, self-sufficiency, and self-expression. collectivism A set of beliefs asserting that it is important for persons to mute their individual desires in order to contribute to the well-being and success of the group. interdependence The web of commitments, attachments, and obligations that exist in some human groups. scientific method A systematic way of finding the answers to questions or problems that includes standards of sampling, procedure, and measures. hypotheses Ideas, based on theory or previous research, that a scholar wishes to test in a scientific study. sample The people included in a given study, who are intended to represent the population of interest. population The entire group of people of interest in a study. representative Characteristic of a sample that refers to the degree to which it accurately represents the population of interest. generalizable Characteristic of a sample that refers to the degree to which findings based on the sample can be used to make accurate statements about the population of interest. procedure Standards for the way a study is conducted. Includes informed consent and certain rules for avoiding biases in the data collection. method A scientific strategy for collecting data. peer reviewed When a scholarly article or book is evaluated by a scholars peers (i.e., other scholars) for scientific credibility and importance. informed consent Standard procedure in social scientific studies that entails informing potential participants of what their participation would involve, including any possible risks. consent form Written statement provided by a researcher to potential participants in a study, informing them of who is conducting the study, the purposes of the study, and what their participation would involve, including potential risks. closed question Questionnaire format that entails choosing from specific responses provided for each question. open-ended question Questionnaire format that involves writing in response to each question. interview Research method that involves asking people questions in a conversational format, such that peoples answers are in their own words. qualitative Data that is collected in non-numerical form, usually in interviews or observations. quantitative Data that is collected in numerical form, usually on questionnaires. ethnographic research Research in which scholars spend a considerable amount of time among the people they wish to study, usually living among them. ethnography A book that presents an anthropologists observations of what life is like in a particular culture. reliability Characteristic of a measure that refers to the extent to which results of the measure on one occasion are similar to results of the measure on a separate occasion. validity The truthfulness of a measure, that is, the extent to which it measures what it claims to measure. experimental research method A research method that entails assigning participants randomly to an experimental group that received a treatment and a control group that does not receive the treatment, then comparing the two groups in a posttest. experimental group In experimental research, the group that receives the treatment. control group In experimental research, the group that does not receive the treatment. interventions Programs intended to change the attitudes and/or behavior of the participants. natural experiment A situation that occurs naturally but that provides interesting scientific information to the perceptive observer. monozygotic (MZ) twins Twins with exactly the same genotype. Also known as identical twins. dizygotic (DZ) twins Twins with about half their genotype in common, the same as for other siblings. Also known as fraternal twins. correlation versus causation A correlation is a predictable relationship between two variables, such that knowing one of the variables makes it possible to predict the other. However, just because two variables are correlated does not mean that one causes the other, longitudinal study A study in which data is collected from the participants on more than one occasion. patriarchal authority Cultural belief in the absolute authority of the father over his wife and children. filial piety Confucian belief, common in many Asian societies, that children are obligated to respect, obey, and revere their parents, especially the father. caste system Hindu belief that people are born into a particular caste based on their moral and spiritual conduct in their previous life. A persons caste then determines their status in Indian society. globalization Increasing worldwide technological and economic integration, which is making different pars of the world increasingly connected and increasingly similar culturally. bicultural Having an identity that includes aspects of two different cultures. resilience Overcoming adverse environmental circumstances to achieve healthy development. culture The total pattern of a groups customs, beliefs, art, and technology; a groups common way of life, passed on from one generation to the next. the West The United States, Canada, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand; they are all developed countries, they are all representative democracies with similar kinds of governments, and they share to some extent a common cultural history; today, they are characterized by secularism, consumerism, and capitalism, to one degree or another; usually refers to the majority culture in each of the countries, but each country also has cultural groups that do not share the characteristics of the majority culture and may even be in opposition to it. developed countries Includes the countries of the West along with Eastern countries such as Japan and South Korea; all of them have highly developed economies that have passed through a period of industrialization and are now based mainly on services (such as law, banking, sales, and accounting) and information (such as computer-related companies). majority culture The culture that sets most of the norms and standards and holds most of the positions of political, economic, intellectual, and media power; in America, the mostly White, middle-class majority in American society. society A group of people who interact in the course of sharing a common geographical area; may include a variety of cultures with different customs, religions, family traditions, and economic practices; different from a culture: members of a culture share a common way of life, whereas members of this may not. traditional cultures Refers to a culture that has maintained a way of life based on stable traditions passed from one generation to the next. These cultures do not generally value change but rather place a higher value on remaining true to cultural traditions; often, they are called preindustrial, which means that they technology and economic practices typical in developed countries are not widely used. developing countries Previously traditional, preindustrial cultures that become industrialized as a consequence of globalization. socioeconomic status Often used to refer to social class, which includes educational level, income level, and occupational status. For adolescents and emerging adults, because they have not yet reached the social class they will have as adults, this is usually used in reference to their parents levels of education, income, and occupation. young people Adolescents and emerging adults together. research design The plan for when and how to collect the data for a study. cross-sectional research Research in which data are collected on a sample of people at a single point in time. national survey Research technique which utilizes both stratified sampling and random sampling on a large scale. national survey Research technique which utilizes both stratified sampling and random sampling on a large scale. puberty The changes in physiology, anatomy, and physical functioning that develop a person into a mature adult biologically and prepare the body for sexual reproduction. endocrine system A network of glands in the body. Through hormones, the glands coordinate their functioning and affect the development and functioning of the body. hormones Chemicals, released by the glands of the endocrine system, that affect the development and functioning of the body, including development during puberty. hypothalamus The master gland, located in the lower part of the brain beneath the cortex, that affects a wide range of physiological and psychological functioning and stimulates and regulates the production of hormones by other glands, including the ones involved in the initiation of puberty. gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) Hormone released by the hypothalamus that causes gonadotropins to be released by the pituitary. leptin A protein, produced by fat cells, that signals the hypothalamus to initiate the hormonal changes of puberty. pituitary gland A gland about half an inch long located at the base of the brain that released gonadotropins as part of the bodys preparation for reproduction. gonadotropins hormones (FSH and LH) that stimulate the development of gametes. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Along with LH, stimulates the development of gametes and sex hormones in the ovaries and testicles. luteinizing hormone (LH) Along with FSH, stimulates the development of gametes and sex hormones in the ovaries and testicles. gametes Cells, distinctive to each sex, that are involved in reproduction (egg cells in the ovaries of the female and sperm in the testes of the male). gonads The ovaries and testicles. Also known as the sex glands. sex hormones Androgens and estrogens that cause the development of primary and secondary sex characteristics. estrogens The sex hormones that have especially high levels in females from puberty onward and are mostly responsible for female primary and secondary sex characteristics. androgens The sex hormones that have especially high levels in males from puberty onward and are mostly responsible for male primary and secondary sex characteristics. estradiol The estrogen most important in pubertal development among girls. testosterone The androgen most important in pubertal development among boys. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) The hormone that causes the adrenal glands to increase androgen production feedback look System of hormones involving the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the gonads, which monitors and adjusts the levels of sex hormones. set point Optimal level of sex hormones in the body. When this point is reached, responses in the glands of the feedback loop cause the production of sex hormones to be reduced. adolescent growth spurt The rapid increase in height that takes place at the beginning of puberty. peak height velocity The point at which the adolescent growth spurt is at its maximum rate. asynchronicity Uneven growth of different parts of the body during puberty. extremities The feet, hands, and head. vital capacity The amount of air that can be exhaled after a deep breath, which increases rapidly during puberty, especially for boys. maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) A measure of the ability of the body to take in oxygen and transport it to various organs; peaks in the early 20s. cardiac output A measure of the quantity of blood pumped by the heart. health promotion Efforts to reduce health problems in young people through encouraging changes in the behaviors that put young people at risk. primary sex characteristics The production of eggs and sperm and the development of the sex organs. secondary sex characteristics Bodily changes of puberty not directly related to reproduction. ovum Mature egg that develops from follicle in ovaries about every 28 days. spermarche Beginning of development of sperm in boys testicles at puberty. vulva External female sex organs, including the labia majora, the labia minora, and the clitoris. labia majora Part of vulva; Latin for large lips. labia minora Part of vulva; Latin for small lips. clitoris Part of vulva in which females sexual sensations are concentrated. breast buds The first slight enlargement of the breast in girls at puberty. areola Area surrounding the nipple on the breast; enlarges at puberty. secular trend A change in the characteristics of a population over time. reaction range Term meaning that genes establish a range of possible development and environment determines where development takes place within that range. incest taboo The prohibition on sexual relations between family members. Believed to be biologically based, as children born to closely related parents are at higher risk for genetic disorders. premenstrual syndrome (PMS) The combination of behavioral, emotional, and physical symptoms that occur in some females the week before menstruation. semenarche A males first ejaculation. age-graded Organized by age, for example in schools. nature-nurture debate Debate over the relative importance of biology and the environment in human development. theory of genotype>environment effects Theory that both genetics and environment make essential contributions to human development but are difficult to unravel because our genes actually influence the kind of environment we experience. passive genotype>environment effects Situation in biological families that parents provide both genes and environment for their children, making genes and environment difficult to separate in their effects on childrens development. evocative genotype>environment effects Occur when a persons inherited characteristics evoke responses from others in the environment. active genotype>environment effects Occur when people seek out environments that correspond to their genotypic characteristics. mikveh Among Orthodox Jewish women, a ritual bath taken a week after the conclusion of the menstrual period, believed to cleanse the impurity believed to be associated with menstruation. cognitive development Changes over time in how people think, how they solve problems, and how their capacities for memory and attention change. Jean Piaget Influential Swiss developmental psychologist, best known for his theories of cognitive and moral development stage A period in which abilities are organized in a coherent, interrelated way. mental structure The organization of cognitive abilities into a single pattern, such that thinking in all aspects of life is a reflection of that structure. cognitive-developmental approach Approach to understanding cognition that emphasizes the changes that take place at different ages. maturation Process by which abilities develop through genetically based development with limited influence from the environment. schemes A mental structure for organizing and interpreting information. assimilation The cognitive process that occurs when new information is altered to fit an existing scheme. accommodation The cognitive process that occurs when a scheme is changed to adapt to new information. sensorimotor stage Cognitive stage in first 2 years of life that involves learning how to coordinate the activities of the senses with motor activities. preoperational stage Cognitive stage from ages 2 to 7 during which the child becomes capable of representing the world symbolicallyfor example, through the use of languagebut is still very limited in ability to use mental operations. concrete operations Cognitive stage from age 7 to 11 in which children learn to use mental operations but are limited to applying them to concrete, observable situations rather than hypothetical situations. mental operations Cognitive activity involving manipulating and reasoning about objects. formal operations Cognitive stage from age 11 on up in which people learn to think systematically about possibilities and hypotheses. pendulum problem Piagets classic test of formal operations, in which persons are asked to figure out what determines the speed at which a pendulum sways from side to side. hypothetical-deductive reasoning Piagets term for the process by which the formal operational thinker systematically tests possible solutions to a problem and arrives at an answer that can be defended and explained. abstract thinking Thinking in terms of symbols, ideas, and concepts. complex thinking Thinking that takes into account multiple connections and interpretations, such as in the use of metaphor, satire, and sarcasm. metacognition The capacity for thinking about thinking that allows adolescents and adults to reason about their thought processes and monitor them. individual differences Approach to research that focuses on how individuals differ within a group, for example, in performance on IQ tests. postformal thinking Type of thinking beyond formal operations, involving greater awareness of the complexity of real-life situations, such as the use of pragmatism and reflective judgment. pragmatism Type of thinking that involves adapting logical thinking to the practical constraints of real-life situations. dialectical thought Type of thinking that develops in emerging adulthood, involving a growing awareness that most problems do not have a single solution and that problems must often be addressed with crucial pieces of information missing. reflective judgment The capacity to evaluate the accuracy and logical coherence of evidence and arguments. dualistic thinking Cognitive tendency to see situations and issues in polarized, absolute, black-and-white terms. multiple thinking Cognitive approach entailing recognition that there is more than one legitimate view of things and that it can be difficult to justify one position as the true or accurate one. relativism Cognitive ability to recognize the legitimacy of competing points of view but also compare the relative merits of competing views. commitment Cognitive status in which persons commit themselves to certain points of view they believe to be the most valid while at the same time being open to reevaluating their views if new evidence is presented to them. information-processing approach An approach to understanding cognition that seeks to delineate the steps involved in the thinking process and how each step is connected to the next. discontinuous A view of development as taking place in stages that are distinct from one another rather than as one gradual, continuous process. continuous A view of development as a gradual, steady process rather than as taking place in distinct stages. componential approach Description of the information-processing approach to cognition, indicating that it involves breaking down the thinking process into its various components. selective attention The ability to focus on relevant information while screening out information that is irrelevant. divided attention The ability to focus on more than one task at a time. short-term memory Memory for information that is the current focus of attention. long-term memory Memory for information that is committed to long-term storage, so that it can be drawn upon after a period when attention has not been focused on it. working memory An aspect of short-term memory that refers to where information is stored as it is comprehended and analyzed. mnemonic devices Memory strategies. automaticity Degree of cognitive effort a person needs to devote to processing a given set of information. reductionism Breaking up a phenomenon into separate parts to such an extent that the meaning and coherence of the phenomenon as a whole becomes lost. critical thinking Thinking that involves not merely memorizing information but analyzing it, making judgments about what it means, relating it to other information, and considering ways in which it might be valid or invalid. behavioral decision theory Theory of decision making that describes the decision-making process as including (1) identifying the range of possible choices; (2) identifying the consequences that would result from each choice; (3) evaluating the desirability of each consequence; (4) assessing the likelihood of each consequence; and (5) integrating this information. organizational core Term applied especially to cognitive development, meaning that cognitive development affects all areas of thinking, no matter what the topic. social cognition How people think about other people, social relationships, and social institutions perspective taking The ability to understand the thoughts and feelings of others. mutual perspective taking Stage of perspective taking, often found in early adolescence, in which persons understand that their perspective-taking interactions with others are mutual, in the sense that each side realizes that the other can take their perspective. social and conventional system perspective taking Realizing that the social perspectives of self and others are influenced not just by their interaction with each other but by their roles in the larger society. prosocial Promoting the well-being of others. theory of mind The ability to attribute mental states to ones self and others, including beliefs, thoughts, and feelings. adolescent egocentrism Type of egocentrism in which adolescents have difficulty distinguishing their thinking about their own thoughts from their thinking about the thoughts of others. imaginary audience Belief that others are acutely aware of and attentive to ones appearance and behavior. personal fable A belief in ones personal uniqueness, often including a sense of invulnerability to the consequences of taking risks. optimistic bias The tendency to assume that accidents, diseases, and other misfortunes are more likely to happen to other people than to ones self. psychometric approach Attempt to understand human cognition by evaluating cognitive abilities using intelligence tests Alfred Binet French psychologist who developed the first intelligence test in the early 20th century, which later became known as the Stanford-Binet. Stanford-Binet Widely used IQ test developed by Alfred Binet and revised by scholars at Stanford University intelligence quotient A measure of a persons intellectual abilities based on a standardized test. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) Intelligence test for children ages 6 to 16, with six Verbal and five Performance subtests. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-IV) Intelligence test for persons ages 16 and up, with six Verbal and five Performance subtests. Verbal subtests In the Wechsler IQ tests, subtests that examine verbal abilities Performance subtests In the Wechsler IQ tests, subtests that examine abilities for attention, spatial perception, and speed of processing. relative performance In IQ tests, performance results compared to those of other persons of the same age. absolute performance In IQ tests, performance results compared to those of other persons, regardless of age. age norms Technique for developing a psychological test, in which a typical score for each age is established by testing a large random sample of people from a variety of geographical areas and social class backgrounds. median In a distribution of scores, the point at which half of the population scores above and half below. test-retest reliability Type of reliability that examines whether or not persons scores on one occasion are similar to their scores on another occasion. fluid intelligence Mental abilities that involve speed of analyzing, processing, and reacting to information. crystallized intelligence Accumulated knowledge and enhanced judgment based on experience. predictive validity In longitudinal research, the ability of a variable at Time 1 to predict the outcome of a variable at Time 2. transracial adoption The adoption of children of one race by parents of a different race. theory of multiple intelligences Howard Gardners theory that there are eight separate types of intelligence. fMRI A technique for measuring brain functioning during an ongoing activity. PET scans A technique for assessing ongoing brain functioning, in which a chemical that emits positrons is injected into the body, and detectors measure their activity levels in various parts of the brain. synapse The point of transmission between two nerve cells. neurons Cells of the nervous system, including the brain. overproduction or exuberance A rapid increase in the production of synaptic connections in the brain. gray matter The outer layer of the brain, where most of the growth in brain cells occurs during overproduction in adolescence. frontal lobes The part of the brain immediately behind the forehead. Known to be involved in higher brain functions such as planning ahead and analyzing complex problems. synaptic pruning Following overproduction, the process by which the number of synapses in the brain are reduced, making brain functioning faster and more efficient but less flexible. myelination Process by which myelin, a blanket of fat wrapped around the main part of the neuron, grows. Myelin serves the function of keeping the brains electrical signals on one path and increasing their speed. cerebellum A structure in the lower brain, well beneath the cortex, long thought to be involved only in basic functions such as movement, now known to be important for many higher functions as well, such as mathematics, music, decision making, and social skills. Vygotsky Russian psychologist who emphasized the cultural basis of cognitive development. zone of proximal development The gap between how competently a person performs a task alone and when guided by an adule or more competent peer. scaffolding The degree of assistance provided to the learner in the zone of proximal development, gradually decreasing as the learners skills develop. guided participation The teaching interaction between two people (often an adult and a child or adolescent) as they participate in a culturally valued activity. cultural psychology Approach to human psychology emphasizing that psychological functioning cannot be separated from the culture in which it takes place. cultural beliefs The predominant beliefs in a culture about right and wrong, what is most important in life, and how life should be lived. May also include beliefs about where and how life originated and what happens after death. symbolic inheritance The set of ideas and understandings, both implicit and explicit, about persons, society, nature, and divinity that serve as a guide to life in a particular culture. It is expressed symbolically through stories, songs, rituals, sacred objects, and sacred places. roles Defined social positions in a culture, containing specifications of behavior, status, and relations with others. Examples include gender, age, and social class. gender roles Cultural beliefs about the kinds of work, appearance, and other aspects of behavior that distinguish women from men. socialization The process by which people acquire the behaviors and beliefs of the culture in which they live. self-regulation The capacity for exercising self-control in order to restrain ones impulses and comply with social norms. role preparation An outcome of socialization that includes preparation for occupational roles, gender roles, and roles in institutions such as marriage and parenthood. Bat Mitzvah Jewish religious ritual for girls at age 13 that signifies the adolescents new responsibilities with respect to Jewish beliefs. Bar Mitzvah Jewish religious ritual for boys at age 13 that signifies the adolescents new responsibilities with respect to Jewish beliefs. sources of meaning The ideas and beliefs that people learn as a part of socialization, indicating what is important, what is to be values, what is to be lived for, and how to explain and offer consolation for the individuals mortality. interdependent self A conception of the self typically found in collectivistic cultures, in which the self is seen as defined by roles and relationships within the group. independent self A conception of the self typically found in individualistic cultures, in which the self is seen as existing independently of relations with others, with an emphasis on independence, individual freedoms, and individual achievements. broad socialization The process by which persons in an individualistic culture come to learn individualism, including values of individual uniqueness, independence, and self-expression. narrow socialization The process by which persons in a collectivistic culture come to learn collectivism, including values of obedience and conformity. custom complex A customary practice and the beliefs, values, sanctions, rules, motives, and satisfactions associated with it; that is, a normative practice in a culture and the cultural beliefs that provide the basis for that practice. ontogenetic Something that occurs naturally in the course of development as part of normal maturation; that is, it is driven by innate processes rather than by environmental stimulation or a specific cultural practice. first-generation families The status of persons who were born in one country and then immigrated to another. second-generation families The status of persons who were born in the country they currently reside in but whose parents were born in a different country. secular Based on nonreligious beliefs and values. social desirability The tendency for people participating in social science studies to report their behavior as they believe it would be approved by others rather than as it actually occurred. poetic-conventional faith Fowlers term for the stage of faith development most typical of early adolescence, in which people become more aware of the symbolism used in their faith and religious understanding becomes more complex in the sense hat early adolescents increasingly believe that there is more than one way of knowing the truth. individuating-reflective faith Fowlers term for the stage of faith most typical of late adolescence and emerging adulthood, in which people rely less on what their parents believed and develop a more individualized faith based on questioning their beliefs and incorporating their personal experience into their beliefs. heteronomous morality Piagets term for the period of moral development from about ages 4 to about 7, in which moral rules are viewed as having a sacred, fixed quality, handed down from figures of authority and alterable only by them. autonomous morality Piagets term for the period of moral development from about ages 10 to 12, involving a growing realization that moral rules are social conventions that can be changed if people decide they should be changed. preconventional reasoning In Kohlbergs theory of moral development, the level in which moral reasoning is based on perceptions of the likelihood of external rewards and punishments. conventional reasoning In Kohlbergs theory of moral development, the level of moral reasoning in which the person advocates the value of conforming to the moral expectations of others. What is right is whatever agrees with the rules established by tradition and by authorities. postconventional reasoning In Kohlbergs theory of moral development, the level in which moral reasoning is based on the individuals own independent judgments rather than on egocentric considerations or considerations of what others view as wrong or right. justice orientation A type of moral orientation that places a premium on abstract principles of justice, equality, and fairness. care orientation Gilligans term for the type of moral orientation that involves focusing on relationships with others as the basis for moral reasoning. worldview A set of cultural beliefs that explain what it means to be human, how human relations should be conducted, and how human problems should be addressed.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Pascal programming Essay Essays

Pascal programming Essay Essays Pascal programming Essay Paper Pascal programming Essay Paper Pascal Programming Arieus Green Professor Gary Smith Sam Houston State University Pascal was designed in 1968, but was no published until the 1970 by the mind of a man named Niklaus Wirth. Niklaus Wirth was born in Winterthur, Switzerland in 1934 were he attended Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich. Where he soon earns his degree in Electronic Engineering by the mid 1960s. Pascal was named based off the memory of the late Baise Pascal, a famous French Philosopher as well as a major mathematician (Bill Catambay). This particular language was inspired by Algol along with Simula 67. Although pascal resembles Algol, It far surpasses it in run precision and capabilities. Pascal was designed to be a straight forward block Structured programming. Pascal structurally sound functionality provided the way for several new languages we use today for example, Ada, Java, Modula and so many others. Pascal was design to farther educate the development of a systematically discipline construct. Pascal was initially designed to influence the practice of good or better program design. The language in particular is an imperative and procedural programming language (Bill Catambay). Imperative programming language simply describes the computation of each term as a statement. This important detail makes it easier to produce a programming code, it also has the capacity to use structure programming alongside with data structuring. All of these things take care of the clarity as well as the quality of each program written in pascal. By this time pascal has been at the top of its game being both reliable as well as efficient. Pascal is a strongly typed, block structure programming language (Bill Catambay). It has evolved with enough power to run home projects, commercial industries and many other entures. Wirth was very particular when the designs were planned out. Much of the pascal language is similar to what we see in our C or Java languages. Some of its features make pascal easy to understand and maintain. The programming Structure of pascal consist of; program name, uses command type, declarations, Statements data object and or functions. Every Pascal program has a heading statement, a declaration and execution in that exact order. Basic syntax variable are placed in the beginning of a statement, followed by a definition of some sort. Declaring a variable s straight forward in the design of pascal. By using keywords like var allows the programmer a number of abilities. Which include declaring string, integers, records and other defining types. This is followed by the capability to use functions and procedures. In Pascal procedures are instructions to execute within the program with no return. Functions are similar in attributes with the exception of having a return value. Like Ada, Pascal is not case sensitive. Pascal Programs are generally formed by several statements. Every statement gives the program a Job by stating or defining xactly what that Job is. Each Job should consist of declarations, assignment, reading or writing data and taking logical statements. Similar to other languages, Pascal has words on reserved such as array, begin and end. These words you would not be allowed use as a variable and to declare any value. Pascal also has a number of different data types that include the standard, integer, real, Boolean and structured array records and file. These constants make it easier for the programmer to read. Pascal has the ability to use numerical, logical, string and character constants. Pascal as many other types, the enumerated type is a data type defined by the user. They give most value the qualification to be specified in a list. Pascal uses variable as a define storage space. Operators are used in every programming language in pascal uses as manipulations of mathematical or logical functionality. There is a list of operators used in pascal involving arithmetic, relations, Boolean, bit, set and string Operands. Each operand has a different responsibility and implementation. Pascal decision making is design for the programmer to specify all condition to evaluated and test by the program. All statements have to have a true or false result and or reroute to another statement of the programmers choice. Helping with these logic statement would me key words like if-then, if-then-else, nest-if statement and many more (Micheal Van Cannegt). These statements can lead one to a loop, where some code that is to be executed multiple times. A loop is usually executed in a specific order the first followed by the second and so on. Pascal also has loop control statement feature that will allow breaks which can call for the termination of a loop or any case statement that has out grown its parameter. Goto statements can transfer control but this feature is not often used. Programmer use a number of small sections of code called subprogram (Victor John Saliba). Every one of these subprograms preforms a particular task as modules. There are two kinds of subprograms function and procedure. Functions are small programs that have a single return value of some variety. Every pascal has to have as many as one function to call it a program and other smaller program to define added functionalities. Pascal functions usually consist of a header, the declaration and a body. The function eader has only two main objects, the keyword and the name of that function. There are many other part to a function, by which include the argument, this is often where the programmer calls the program and the formal parameters. The formal parameter could be an array, subprogram or structured variables. The declaration function simply speaks to the compiler giving it instructions on how to call that specific program it ultimately has the same attributes as the function subprogram. The difference being in the format of the keywords, which is procedure being one of them nstead of function. Pascal file handling capabilities are second to none and are very simple to generate. For instant, notice that there is not a word on reserve for the reading or writing to a file, the usual format to use is readln() or writeln(). When reading a file the base type could be an integer real, Boolean, enumerator, subrange, record, arrays each one but certain other file types. Pascal was a powerful language and tool in 1970s and has become a more advanced language over time. Pascal has been through a few update and changes to the language. In being this reliable and fficient Pascal will continue to be of use in the near future. References freepascal. org/advantage. var ftp://ftp. freepascal. org/pub/fpc/docs-pdf/ref. pdf, Reference guide for Free Pascal, version 2. 6. 2 Document version 2. 6. February 2013 pascal-central. com/ppl/chapter2. html. The Pascal Programming Language. Bill Catambay. 0 2001 Academic Press. http://pascal-programming. info/ index. php. pascal Programming. Victor John Saliba 2006. computerhistory. org/fellowawards/hall/bios/Niklaus,Wirth/ . Copyright 0 2013 Computer History Museum

Thursday, February 20, 2020

International Investment Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

International Investment Analysis - Essay Example Present Situation of TESCO The company has a worldwide presence in China, India, Hungary, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Poland, Ireland, North America and many other countries. The company employs 300,000 people and operates 3,000 stores worldwide (TESCO Plc, 2013b). The company operates 200 stores in UK itself and offers a varied range of food items (Gargeya, V.B. et al., 2012). It is the leading brand of food retailing in UK followed by Everyday Value. Tesco has always believed that the strategy of the company needs to be revised as per the changing taste and preference of consumers. The company earns 25 percent of its revenue from countries outside UK (Martin and Thompson, 2010). The underlying objective of the company is to earn higher amount of profits but their strategies are usually customer oriented. Tesco believes in improving the customer service by responding to the customer needs and wants. TESCO believes in innovation and expansion in the UK grocery market and convenience st ores electronics, clothing, beauty health and wellness and retail services like personal finance and telecom products. These strategies are followed by TESCO to strengthen its market position in UK and other countries. The stores are usually renovated from time to time, in order to give customers a warmer and refreshing feel in the stores. TESCO products are usually low priced and of better quality. The company believes in undertaking environmental and social responsibilities. It publishes its corporate social responsibility charter every year. Macroeconomic situation Prior to recession, TESCO’s sales were ?42 billion in the year 2006, which was an increase in profit by 13.2 percent from the financial year 2010-2011. The market share of TESCO was 31.4 percent, which was even more than the market share of ASDA Walmart that was 16.7 percent (Henry, 2008). Figure 1: Market share of UK supermarkets in the year 2006 (Source: Henry, 2008) The company was reaping profits and was mak ing considerable amount of sales before recession. This was mainly due to the marketing team of TESCO which monitored the trend of external environment and provided innovative products and solutions to customers. The brand became so popular among the residents of UK that customers had created a brand loyalty towards the company (Haerifar, 2011). From the above graph, we can observe that the dominant supermarket was TESCO in the year 2006 followed by ASDA Walmart and Sainsbury. After recession had penetrated into the markets of USA and UK in the year 2008, the company TESCO witnessed a slow growth (English, 2009). Majority of its revenue was coming from the overseas markets and it was facing a stiff competition from the supermarkets of UK like ASDA Walmart, Morrisons and Aldi. Although, TESCO claimed that there was an increase in sales by 11.7 percent in the fourth quarter of the year 2008 (Thompson, 2008) economist believed that TESCO was not able to reach its sales target. To add t o the woes of TESCO, the government had also increased the Value Added Tax (VAT) rate and excise duty (Peston, 2012). The net sales of TESCO was ?51.77 billion in the year 2008 compared to ?59.46 billion in the year 2009 (TESCO Plc, 2013a). TESCO is slowly recovering from the recession and